В чем различия via, by, through, over

Кратко на примерах поясняю когда они используют слова via by through over.
В конце статьи разместила видео по этой теме от британского учителя.

‘Via’ — как, каким способом.
Let’s chat via Skype, or Let’s chat on Skype, or just «Let’s Skype.
I’m currently learning English via self study.
Send the copy via fax.
You’d fly to Moscow via airplane.

‘Through’ — через.
When we go to Hawaii, we’ll fly through Los Angeles or San Diego.

‘By’ — как, каким образом
Send me please this picture by email — отправь, пож-та, эту фотку по электронке.
Did you come by bus? -вы приехали автобусом?
Do something by hand — делать что-то руками.
Who’s it by? чья это работа?

‘Over’ — по, через.
Speak over the phone.
Go over this crossroads and turn right.

Когда я задала это вопрос американцу, то получила от него вот такое заключение: «I’d never thought about how many English words have similar meanings! :)».

Он пояснил с примерами, когда они используют то или иное слово.
Смотрите сами.


‘Via’ usually refers to the method by which you’re doing something but can also mean ‘by way of.
‘Via’ isn’t necessarily a formal word, but you wouldn’t expect to hear it much if overhearing conversations in uneducated groups of people.

‘Over’ can mean ‘above’ or ‘by way of’ or can refer to a direction in the phrase «over there.» One person asks «Where’s McDonalds?» The other person points in a certain direction and says «Over there.» (вон там ) .

Have you seen the movie The Wizard of Oz? The main song is «Somewhere over the rainbow,» meaning ‘above’ or ‘beyond.’ You have conversations over (or on) the phone.

‘Through’ can also mean ‘by way of.’

When we go to Hawaii, we’ll fly through Los Angeles or San Diego. If I said we’ll fly ‘over’ Los Angeles, it would mean we weren’t landing there.

‘We walked through the forest’. If I don’t stop at a red light and a policeman stopped me he would say «You went through that light,» meaning I didn’t stop for it.
If you leave the house by going out a window, you go through the window. You walk through the garden. For your example «I walk through the street,» it would be better to say «I walk down the street.»
You’re walking through the waves at a beach.

‘By’ can mean beside of. I drove by the mall but didn’t need to stop for anything. It can mean going somewhere as a destination. «I went by McDonalds» would mean I went inside or stopped for something. «I’m going by the post office. Do you need any stamps?» In your examples, ‘by’ means the same as ‘via.’ I went to Atlanta via the train, I went to Atlanta by the train, I went to Atlanta on the train, all mean the same thing.


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